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Pau d'Arco Extract

Pau d'Arco Extract Pau d'arco is used in Brazilian herbal medicine for many conditions including cancer, leukemia, ulcers, diabetes, candida, rheumatism, arthritis, prostatitis, dysentery, stomatitis, and boils.* Scientists around the world have documented the active properties of pau d'arco and its chemicals including the widely studied chemicals, beta-lapachone and lapachol which have been documented with anticancerous and antimicrobial actions.* For more information about pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa), please refer to the Database File for Pau d'arco in the Tropical Plant Database. To see pictures of pau d'arco, click here. More information on pau d'arco can also be found in the new Anti-Cancerous Guide and the Anti-Microbial Guide. Traditional Uses: for Candida, yeast and other fungal infections (taken internally and used as a douche or topically); for leukemia and cancer; for colds, flu and other upper-respiratory bacterial and viral infections; for sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, etc.); for psoriasis and dermatitis Suggested Use: Take 2 ml 2 or more times daily or as directed by a health care professional. Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding. Drug Interactions: None reported. Published Research on Pau d'arco All available third-party research on pau d'arco can be found at PubMed/Medline. A partial listing of the third-party published research on pau d'arco updated through Feb 2019 is shown below: Antimicrobial Actions (fungi, yeast, bacteria, and virus): Pau d'arco contains a plant chemical named lapachol which has documented antimalarial, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, pesticidal, schistosomicidal, termiticidal, and viricidal actions. Another chemical in the bark, beta-lapachone, has been demonstrated in laboratory studies to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral actions. Antimicrobial properties of many of pau d'arco's other active phytochemicals were demonstrated in several laboratory studies, in which they exhibited strong in vitro activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeast (including Candida, Aspergillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Helicobacter pylori, Brucella, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and dysentery). In addition to its isolated chemicals, a hot water extract of pau d'arco demonstrated antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and Brucella. In other in vitro clinical research an extract of the bark was shown to have strong activity against 11 fungal and yeast strains. Pau d'arco and its chemicals also have demonstrated in vitro antiviral properties against various viruses, including Herpes I and II, influenza, polio virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. Moraes, D., et al. "ß-lapachone and a-nor-lapachone modulate Candida albicans viability and virulence factors." J. Mycol. Med. 2018 Jun; 28(2): 314-319. Bleve, G., et al. "In vitro activity of antimicrobial compounds against Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of the olive quick decline syndrome in Apulia (Italy)." FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2018 Mar; 365(5). Macedo, L., et al. "β-Lapachone activity in synergy with conventional antimicrobials against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains." Phytomedicine. 2013 Dec; 21(1): 25-9. Souza, M., et al. "The antimicrobial activity of lapachol and its thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2013 May; 108(3). Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz. J. Biol. 2010 Nov; 70(4): 1065-8. Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov; 52(6): 511-7. Pereira, E., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5. Park, B., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 255-62. Park, B., et al. "Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Feb; 23;53(4): 1152-7. Park, B., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; Machado, T., et al. "In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2003; 21(3): 279-84. Portillo, A., et al. "Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(1): 93-8. Nagata, K., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs." Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(3): 700-2. Binutu, O., et al. "Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family." Afr. J. Med. Sci. 1994; 23(3): 269-73. Giuraud, P., et al. "Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and b-lapachone." Planta Med. 1994; 60: 373-74. Li, C. J., et al. "Three inhibitors of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat-directed gene expression and virus replication." Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 1993; 90(5): 1839-42. Anesini, C., et al. "Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119-28. Lagrota, M., et al. "Antiviral activity of lapachol." Rev. Microbiol. 1983; 14: 21-6. Gershon, H., et al. "Fungitoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinonoes to Candida albicans and Trichophyton menta grophytes." Can. J. Microbiol. 1975; 21: 1317-21. Linhares, M., et al. "Estudo sobre of efeito de substancias antibioticas obitdas de Streptomyces e vegatais superiores sobre o herpesvirus hominis." Revista Instituto Antibioticos, Recife 1975; 15: 25-32. Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions: In the 1960s, extracts of pau d'arco demonstrated marked antitumorous effects in animals, which drew the interest of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Researchers decided that the most potent single chemical for this activity was a naphthoquinone chemical named lapachol and they concentrated solely on this single chemical in their subsequent cancer research. In a 1968 study, lapachol demonstrated highly significant activity against cancerous tumors in rats. By 1970, NCI-backed research already was testing lapachol in human cancer patients. The institute reported, however, that their first Phase I study failed to produce a therapeutic effect without side effects—and they discontinued further cancer research shortly thereafter. These side effects were nausea and vomiting and anti-vitamin K activity. Interestingly, other chemicals in the whole plant extract (which, initially, showed positive antitumor effects at very low toxicity) demonstrated positive effects on vitamin K and, conceivably, compensated for lapachol's negative effect. Once again, instead of pursuing research on a complex combination of at least 20 active chemicals in a whole plant extract (several of which had anti-tumor effects and other positive biological activities), research focused on a single, patentable chemical—and it didn't work as well. Despite NCI's abandonment of the research, another group developed a lapachol analog (which was patentable) in 1975. One study reported that this lapachol analog increased the life span of mice inoculated with leukemic cells by over 80%. In a small, uncontrolled, 1980 study of nine human patients with various cancers (liver, kidney, breast, prostate, and cervix), pure lapachol was reported to shrink tumors and reduce pain caused by them—and three of the patients realized complete remissions. Another chemical in pau d'arco, beta-lapachone, has been studied closely of late and a number of recent patents have been filed on it. It has demonstrated in laboratory studies to have activities similar to lapachol (antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumorous, antileukemic, and anti-inflammatory), with few side effects. Research published from 2003 to 2005 provides important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of beta-lapachone specifically against prostate, colon, pancreatic, and lung cancers. In a 2002 U.S. patent, beta-lapachone was cited to have significant anticancerous activity against human cancer cell lines including: melanoma, promyelocytic leukemia, prostate, malignant glioma, colon, hepatoma, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, multiple myeloma cell lines and drug-resistant cell lines. In yet another U.S. patent, beta-lapachone was cited with the in vivo ability to inhibit the growth of prostate tumors. Panda, S., et al. "Stem extract of Tabebuia chrysantha induces apoptosis by targeting sEGFR in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Feb; 235: 219-226. Dias, R., et al. "β-Lapachone and its iodine derivatives cause cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase and reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells." Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2018 Oct; 126: 87-100. Shankar, B., et al. "Lapachol inhibits glycolysis in cancer cells by targeting pyruvate kinase M2." PLoS One. 2018 Feb; 13(2): e0191419. Hussain, H., and Green, I. "Lapachol and lapachone analogs: a journey of two decades of patent research (1997-2016)." Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 2017 Oct; 27(10): 1111-1121. Kee, J., et al. "β-lapachone inhibits lung metastasis of colorectal cancer by inducing apoptosis of CT26 cells." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2017 Dec; 16(4): 585-596. Kee, J., et al. "β-Lapachone suppresses the lung metastasis of melanoma via the MAPK signaling pathway." PLoS One. 2017 May; 12(5): e0176937. Beg, M., et al. "Using a novel NQO1 bioactivatable drug, beta-lapachone (ARQ761), to enhance chemotherapeutic effects by metabolic modulation in pancreatic cancer." J. Surg. Oncol. 2017 Jul; 116(1): 83-88. Bang, W., et al. "β-lapachone suppresses the proliferation of human malignant melanoma cells by targeting specificity protein 1." Oncol Rep. 2016 Feb; 35(2): 1109-16. Xu, H., et al. "Inhibitory effects of lapachol on rat C6 glioma in vitro and in vivo by targeting DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II." J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 2016 Nov; 35(1): 178. Pires, T., et al. "Bioactive properties of Tabebuia impetiginosa-based phytopreparations and Phytoformulations: a comparison between extracts and dietary supplements." Molecules. 2015 Dec; 20(12): 22863-71. Jeon, Y., et al. "Downregulation of Sp1 is involved in β-lapachone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma." Int. J. Oncol. 2015; 46(6): 2606-12. Kung, H., etal. "Sulindac compounds facilitate the cytotoxicity of β-lapachone by up-regulation of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase in human lung cancer cells." PLoS One. 2014 Feb; 9(2): e88122. Sunassee, S., et al. "Cytotoxicity of lapachol, β-lapachone and related synthetic 1,4-naphthoquinones against oesophageal cancer cells." Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2013 Apr; 62: 98-110. Oliveira Silva, E., et al. "Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics." Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2014 Jul; 59(1): 108-14. Lamberti, M., et al. "Synergistic enhancement of antitumor effect of β-Lapachone by photodynamic induction of quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)." Phytomedicine. 2013 Aug; 20(11): 1007-12. Inagaki, R., et al. "Synthesis and cytotoxicity on human leukemia cells of furonaphthoquinones isolated from Tabebuia plants." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2013; 61(6): 670-3. Costa, W., et al. "Lapachol as an epithelial tumor inhibitor agent in Drosophila melanogaster heterozygote for tumor suppressor gene wts." Genet. Mol. Res. 2011 Dec; 10(4): 3236-45. Sichaem, J., et al. "Tabebuialdehydes A-C, cyclopentene dialdehyde derivatives from the roots of Tabebuia rosea." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec; 83(8): 1456-9. Garkavtsev, I., et al. "Dehydro-alpha-lapachone, a plant product with antivascular activity." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2011 Jul; 108(28): 11596-601. Higa, R., et al. "Study of the antineoplastic action of Tabebuia avellanedae in carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in mice." Acta Cir. Bras. 2011 Apr; 26(2): 125-8. Moon, D., et al. "Beta-lapachone (LAPA) decreases cell viability and telomerase activity in leukemia cells: suppression of telomerase activity by LAPA." J. Med. Food. 2010 Jun; 13(3): 481-8. Mukherjee, B., et al. "Growth inhibition of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells by Taheebo from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellandae tree." Int. J. Mol. Med. 2009 Aug; 24(2): 253-60. Yamashita, M., et al. "Synthesis and evaluation of bioactive naphthoquinones from the Brazilian medicinal plant, Tabebuia avellanedae." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009 Sep; 17(17): 6286-91. de Sousa, N., et al. "Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster" Genet. Mol. Biol. 2009 Apr-Jun; 32(2): 382–388. Queiroz, M., et al. "Comparative studies of the effects of Tabebuia avellanedae bark extract and beta-lapachone on the hematopoietic response of tumour-bearing mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 May; 117(2): 228-35. Kim, S., et al. "Induction of Egr-1 is associated with anti-metastatic and anti-invasive ability of beta-lapachone in human hepatocarcinoma cells." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2007 Sep; 71(9): 2169-76. Larsson, D., et al. "Identification and evaluation of potential anti-cancer drugs on human neuroendocrine tumor cell lines." Anticancer Res. 2006 Nov-Dec; 26(6B): 4125-9. Bey, E., et al. "Mornings with Art, lessons learned: feedback regulation, restriction threshold biology, and redundancy govern molecular stress responses." J. Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec; 209(3): 604-10. Kung, H., et al. "Involvement of NO/cGMP signaling in the apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of beta-lapachone on endothelial cells in vitro." J. Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec 27; Bentle, M., et al. "Calcium-dependent modulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 alters cellular metabolism and DNA repair." J. Biol. Chem. 2006 Nov; 281(44): 33684-96. Sun, X., et al. "Selective induction of necrotic cell death in cancer cells by beta-lapachone through activation of DNA damage response pathway." Cell Cycle. 2006 Sep; 5(17): 2029-35. Woo, H., et al. "Beta-lapachone, a quinone isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae, induces apoptosis in HepG2 hepatoma cell line through induction of Bax and activation of caspase." J. Med. Food. 2006 Summer; 9(2): 161-8. Suzuki, M., et al. "Synergistic effects of radiation and beta-lapachone in DU-145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro." Radiat. Res. 2006; 165(5): 525-31. Lee, J., et al. "Beta-lapachone induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by modulation of Bcl-2 family and activation of caspases." Exp. Oncol. 2006 Mar; 28(1): 30-5. Lee, J., et al. "Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells." Pharmacol. Res. 2005; 51(6): 553-60. Reinicke, K., et al. "Development of beta-lapachone prodrugs for therapy against human cancer cells with elevated NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 levels." Clin. Cancer Res. 2005 Apr; 11(8): 3055-64. Woo, H., et al. "Growth inhibition of A549 human lung carcinoma cells by beta-lapachone through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity." Int. J. Oncol. 2005; 26(4): 1017-23. Park, H., et al. "Heat-induced up-regulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase potentiates anticancer effects of beta-lapachone." Clin. Cancer Res. 2005 Dec; 11(24 Pt 1): 8866-71. Balassiano, I., et al. "Demonstration of the lapachol as a potential drug for reducing cancer metastasis. Oncol. Rep. 2005; 13(2): 329-33. Ough, M., et al. "Efficacy of beta-lapachone in pancreatic cancer treatment: exploiting the novel, therapeutic target NQO1." Cancer Biol. Ther. 2005 Jan; 4(1): 95-102. Park, H., et al. "Susceptibility of cancer cells to beta-lapachone is enhanced by ionizing radiation." Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2005 Jan; 61(1): 212-9. Kumi-Diaka, J., et al. "Potential mechanism of phytochemical-induced apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells: Therapeutic synergy in genistein and beta-lapachone combination treatment." Cancer Cell Int. 2004 Aug; 4(1): 5. Choi, B., et al. "Beta-Lapachone-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of caspase-3 and inactivation of NF-kappaB in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells." Anticancer Drugs. 2003 Nov; 14(10): 845-50. Renou, S., et al. "Monoarylhydrazones of alpha-lapachone: synthesis, chemical properties and antineoplastic activity." Pharmazie. 2003 Oct; 58(10): 690-5. Choi, Y. H., et al. "Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by beta-Lapachone via down-regulation of PRB phosphorylation and induction of Cdk Inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1)." J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2003 Mar; 36(2): 223-9. Pardee, A., et al, "Cancer therapy with beta-lapachone." Curr. Cancer Drug Targets. 2002 Sep; 2(3): 227-42. Colman de Saizarbitoria, T., et al. "Bioactive furonaphtoquinones from Tabebuia barbata (Bignoniaceae)." Acta Cient. Venez. 1997; 48(1): 42-6. Ueda, S., et al. "Production of anti-tumour-promoting furanonaphthoquinones in Tabebuia avellanedae cell cultures." Phytochemistry. 1994 May; 36(2): 323-5. Schuerch, A., et al. "B-Lapachone, an inhibitor of oncornavirus reverse transcriptase and eukarotic DBA Polymerase-A. Inhibitory effect, thiol dependency and specificity." Eur. J. Biochem. 1978; 84: 197-205. Linardi, M., et al. "A lapachol derivative active against mouse lymphocyte leukemia P-388." J. Med. Chem. 1975; 18(11): 1159-62. Block, J., et al. "Early clinical studies with lapachol (NSC-11905)." Cancer Chemother. Rep. 1974; 4: 27-8. Santana, C., et al. "Preliminary observation with the use of lapachol in human patients bearing malignant neoplasms." Revista do Instituto de Antibioticos 1971; 20: 61-8. Rao, K., et al. "Recognition and evaluation of lapachol as an antitumor agent." Canc. Res. 1968; 28: 1952-54. Anti-Autoimmune Actions: Park, H., et al. "Oral administration of taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb.) water extract prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating type II T helper immune responses." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2017 Sep; 17(1): 448. Peres, R., et al. "Lapachol, a compound targeting pyrimidine metabolism, ameliorates experimental autoimmune arthritis." Arthritis Res. Ther. 2017 Mar; 19(1): 47. Xu, J., et al. "Beta-Lapachone ameliorization of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis." J. Neuroimmunol. 2013 Jan; 254(1-2): 46-54. Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulatory, Anti-Allergy, & Pain-Relieving Actions: Park, J., et al. "Tabetri™ (Tabebuia avellanedae ethanol extract) ameliorates atopic dermatitis symptoms in mice." Mediators Inflamm. 2018 Mar; 2018: 9079527. Ma, S., et al. "Taheebo polyphenols attenuate free fatty acid-induced inflammation in murine and human macrophage cell lines as inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2." Front. Nutr. 2017 Dec; 4:63. Erratum in: Front. Nutr. 2018 Jan; 5:2. Beg, M., et al. "Using a novel NQO1 bioactivatable drug, beta-lapachone (ARQ761), to enhance chemotherapeutic effects by metabolic modulation in pancreatic cancer." J. Surg. Oncol. 2017 Jul; 116(1): 83-88. Park, H., et al. "Oral administration of taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb.) water extract prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating type II T helper immune responses." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2017 Sep; 17(1): 448. Park, J., et al. "Tabetri™ (Tabebuia avellanedae ethanol extract) ameliorates osteoarthritis symptoms induced by monoiodoacetate through its anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective activities." Mediators Inflamm. 2017; 2017: 3619879. Suo, M., et al. "Iridoid Glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae." Chem. Biodivers. 2016 Dec; 13(12): 1611-1616. Zhang, L., et al. "Iridoid esters from Tabebuia avellanedae and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Planta Med. 2017 Jan; 83(1-02): 164-171. Park, J., et al. "Syk and IRAK1 contribute to immunopharmacological activities of anthraquinone-2-carboxlic acid." Molecules. 2016 Jun; 21(6). Wang, Q., et al. "Veratric acid inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in human gingival fibroblasts." Inflammation. 2016 Feb; 39(1): 237-242. Zhang, L., et al. "Anti-inflammatory cyclopentene derivatives from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." Fitoterapia. 2016 Mar; 109: 217-23. Richter, M., et al. "Pau d'arco activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression via the MEK/ERK-pathway." J. Toxicol. Sci. 2014 Apr; 39(2): 353-61. Lee, M., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo, the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." Mol. Med. Report. 2012 Oct; 6(4): 791-6. Suo, M., et al. "Anti-inflammatory constituents from Tabebuia avellanedae." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec; 83(8): 1484-8. Byeon, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep; 119(1): 145-52. Bohler, T., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae extracts inhibit IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation." Transpl. Immunol. 2008 Feb; 18(4): 319-23. Awale, S., et al. "Nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory constituents of Tabebuia avellanedae from Brazil." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 53(6): 710-3. Lee, J. H., et al. "Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells." Pharmacol. Res. 2005; 51(6): 553-60. Tzeng, H., et al. "Beta-Lapachone reduces endotoxin-induced macrophage activation and lung edema and mortality." Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003 Jul; 168(1): 85-91. de Miranda, F. G., et al. "Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract." BMC. Pharmacol. 2001; 1(1): 6. Oga, S., et al. "Toxicidade e atividade anti-inflamatoria de Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz (‘Ipe Roxo’)." Rev. Fac. Farm. Bioquim. 1969; 7: 4. Anti-Obesity & Cholesterol Lowering Actions: Iwamoto, K., et al. "The anti-obesity effect of Taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb) extract in ovariectomized mice and the identification of a potential anti-obesity compound." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016 Sep; 478(3): 1136-40. Choi, W., et al. "Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet." Molecules. 2014 Oct; 19(10): 16013-23. Kiage-Mokua, B., et al. "Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats." Phytother. Res. 2012 Dec; 26(12): 1878-83. Antipsoriatic & Anti-melanogenesis (skin whitening) Actions: Kim, J., et al. "Melanogenesis inhibition of β-lapachone, a natural product from Tabebuia avellanedae, with effective in vivo lightening potency." Arch. Dermatol Res. 2015 Apr; 307(3): 229-38. Muller, K., et al. "Potential antipsoriatic agents: lapacho compounds as potent inhibitors of HaCaT cell growth." J. Nat. Prod. 1999; 62(8): 1134-36. Enhanced Endurance Actions: Yada, K., et al. "Single dose administration of taheebo polyphenol enhances endurance capacity in mice." Sci. Rep. 2018 Oct; 8(1): 14625. Antidepressant Actions: Freitas, A., et al. "NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway are implicated in the antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in mice." J. Med. Food. 2013 Nov; 16(11): 1030-8. Freitas, A., et al. "Antidepressant-like action of the bark ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in the olfactory bulbectomized mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Feb; 145(3): 737-45. Freitas, A., et al. "Antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system." Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 2010 Mar; 34(2): 335-43. Neuroprotective Actions: Park, J., et al. "Neuroprotective effect of β-lapachone in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model: involvement of astroglial p-AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways." Biomol. Ther. 2019 Feb 8. Lee, M., et al. "Amelioration of Huntington's disease phenotypes by Beta-Lapachone is associated with increases in Sirt1 expression, CREB phosphorylation and PGC-1a deacetylation." PLoS One. 2018 May; 13(5): e0195968. Lee, E., et al. "β-Lapachone suppresses neuroinflammation by modulating the expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in activated microglia." J. Neuroinflammation. 2015 Jul; 12: 133. Anti-Ulcer & Gastroprotective Actions: Park, H., et al. "Oral administration of taheebo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb.) water extract prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating type II T helper immune responses." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2017 Sep; 17(1): 448. Giacomelli, I., et al. "Oral lapacho-based medication: an easy, safe, and feasible support to prevent and/or reduce oral mucositis during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer." Nutr. Cancer. 2015; 67(8): 1247-53. Theoduloz, C., et al. "Potential gastroprotective effect of novel cyperenoic acid/quinone derivatives in human cell cultures." Planta Med. 2012 Nov; 78(17): 1807-12. Pereira, I., et al. "Antiulcer effect of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae: activation of cell proliferation in gastric mucosa during the healing process." Phytother Res. 2013 Jul; 27(7): 1067-73. Twardowschy, A., et al. "Antiulcerogenic activity of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, Lorentz ex Griseb." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug; 118(3): 455-9. Wound-Healing Actions: Coelho, J., et al. "[Effects of silver sulfadiazine, ipê roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae) extract and barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens) extract on cutaneous wound healing in rats]." Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. 2010 Feb; 37(1): 45-51. Kung, H., et al. "In vitro and in vivo wound healing-promoting activities of beta-lapachone." Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 2008 Oct; 295(4): C931-43. Anti-Osteoporosis Actions: Gu, D., et al."The inhibitory effect of beta-lapachone on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2017 Jan; 482(4): 1073-1079. Antioxidant & Cellular Protective Actions: Garzón-Castaño, S., et al. "Nrf2-mediated antioxidant activity of the inner bark extracts obtained from Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) DC and Tabebuia chrysantha (JACQ) G. Nicholson." Version 2. F1000Res. 2018 Dec 16 [revised 2019 Jan 1]; 7: 1937. Panda, S., et al. "Stem extract of Tabebuia chrysantha induces apoptosis by targeting sEGFR in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Feb; 235: 219-226. Yada, K., et al. "Single dose administration of taheebo polyphenol enhances endurance capacity in mice." Sci. Rep. 2018 Oct; 8(1): 14625. Lee, K., et al. "A study of facial wrinkles improvement effect of veratric acid from cauliflower mushroom through photo-protective mechanisms against UVB irradiation." Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2016 Apr; 308(3): 183-92. Saravanakumar, M.,et al. "Oral administration of veratric acid, a constituent of vegetables and fruits, prevents cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats: a functional evaluation." Br. J. Nutr. 2015 Nov; 114(9): 1385-94. Pires, T., et al. "Bioactive properties of Tabebuia impetiginosa-based phytopreparations and phytoformulations: a comparison between extracts and dietary supplements." Molecules. 2015 Dec; 20(12): 22863-71. Ran, X., et al. "Protective effect of veratric acid on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2014 Oct; 740: 227-32. Suo, M., et al. "Bioactive phenylpropanoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae." Molecules. 2013 Jun; 18(7): 7336-45. Park, B., et al. "Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC)." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003; 51(1): 295-300. Antivenin Actions: Strauch, M., et al. "Lapachol and synthetic derivatives: in vitro and in vivo activities against Bothrops snake venoms." PLoS One. 2019 Jan; 14(1): e0211229. Malange, K., et al. "Tabebuia aurea decreases hyperalgesia and neuronal injury induced by snake venom." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Apr; 233: 131-140. Nunez, V., et al. "Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2004; 37(7): 969-77. Otero, R., et al. "Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1-2): 233-41. Otero, R., et al. "Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug; 71(3): 505-11. Anti-Parasitic, Larvicidal & Anti-Malarial Actions: Cunha Araújo, I., et al. "Efficacy of lapachol on treatment of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis." Exp. Parasitol. 2019 Feb 21. Mata-Santos, T., "Anthelmintic activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and its derivatives against Toxocara canis larvae." Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. 2015 May-Jun; 57(3): 197-204. Kim, M., et al. "Larvicidal activity of the active constituent isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae bark and structurally related derivatives against three mosquito species." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013 Nov; 61(45): 10741-5. González-Coloma, A., et al. "Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants." Parasitol. Res. 2012 Apr;110(4):1381-92. Silva, T., et al. "Molluscicidal activities of six species of Bignoniaceae from north-eastern Brazil, as measured against Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions." Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2007 Jun; 101(4): 359-65. Ferreira, V. F., et al. "Trypanocidal agents with low cytotoxicity to mammalian cell line: a comparison of the theoretical and biological features of lapachone derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2006 Aug; 14(16): 5459-66. Silva, R. S., et al. "Synthesis of naphthofuranquinones with activity against Trypanosoma cruzi." Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2006 Apr; 41(4): 526-30. Menna-Barreto, R. F., et al. "Effect of a beta-lapachone-derived naphthoimidazole on Trypanosoma cruzi: identification of target organelles." J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2005 Dec; 56(6): 1034-41. Perez-Sacau, E., et al. "Antiplasmodial activity of naphthoquinones related to lapachol and beta-lapachone." Chem. Biodivers. 2005; 2(2): 264-74. Lima, N. M., et al. "Antileishmanial activity of lapachol analogues." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2004 Nov; 99(7): 757-61. de Andrade-Neto, V. F., et al. "Antimalarial activity of phenazines from lapachol, beta-lapachone and its derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2004 Mar; 14(5): 1145-9. Pinto, C. N., et al. "Chemical reactivity studies with naphthoquinones from Tabebuia with anti-trypanosomal efficacy." Arzneimittelforschung. 2000; 50(12): 1120-8. Austin, F. R. "Schistosoma mansoni chemoprophylaxis with dietary lapachol." Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1979; 23: 412-19. Gilbert, B., et al. "Schistosomiasis. Protection against infection by terpenoids." An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc. 1970; 2 (Suppl): 397-400. Toxicity Studies: Lemos, O., et al. "Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats." Genet. Mol. Biol. 2012 Apr-Jun; 35(2): 498–502. de Sousa, N., et al. "Modulatory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) on doxorubicin-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster" Genet. Mol. Biol. 2009 Apr-Jun; 32(2): 382–388. This is an informational site only and no products are sold. The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site. A leader in creating a world-wide market for the important medicinal plants of the Amazon since 1995. Please share! 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